Yogurt (also known as yogurt, yoghurt or yoghourt, although these are not favored by the SAR) is a dairy product obtained by bacterial fermentation of milk. While any type of milk can be used, current production uses predominantly cow’s milk. The fermentation of lactose (milk sugar) in lactic acid is what gives yoghurt its distinctive texture and taste. Fruit, vanilla, chocolate and other flavors are often added, but can also be made without additives (“natural”).
The production of fermented dairy products is one of the most important industries. Fermented milks are acidified products by means of a fermentation process, as a result of acidification by milk bacteria, milk proteins are coagulated. These proteins can then be dissociated and separated by amino acids. For this reason; Fermented milks are digested better than unfermented products. One of the most well-known fermented products is this highly fermented fermented milk yogurt is obtained by the combined action of Lactobacillus vulgaricus and Strepococcus thermophilus.
Processed yogurt (curdled or coagulated) is the product in which the pasteurized milk is packaged immediately after inoculation, and coagulation occurs in the package.
Whipped yogurt is the product in which the inoculation of the pasteurized milk is made in incubation tanks, producing the coagulation in them, then beats and then packaged.
RAW MATERIAL AND INPUTS:
- Fresh lint: 1 lt. Fresh, skimmed cow’s milk (plain milk in a jar or box) or powder is used.
- Lite powder: 50 gr / 1lt. This input is used to correct its density.
- Sugar: 90 gr / 1lt. Refined white sugar is used (this does not mean powder).
- Yogurt – 20 gr / 1lt. Commercial cultivation consisting of strains of bacteria Lactobacillus vulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. (This is found in natural food stores, it is called “yogurt culture”, it is yogurt already prepared but without sugar, White and textured. If it is not found, you could use natural yogurt, but not factory, that is, it has to be like a home-made yogurt because it preserves the bacteria of lactobacillus in its original and good state, and the factory’s natural yogurt do not).
- Flavoring: A few droplets. Optional, it can be used generally when no fruit is used.
- Fruit: 50 gr / 1lt. Fruit pulp. First peel the fruit and remove the pulp (50g.), Then ecaldarlo, ie subjecting the pieces of pulp at 80 ° C for 10 minutes (this is done to have the natural color of the fruit)
EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS:
- coarse cotton fabric
- measuring jug
The milk is distilled in clean containers and disinfected with drinking water to which 5 drops of bleach per liter have been added.
Milk is strained or filtered using a clean and disinfected tocuyo cloth, in order to remove foreign particles from milking.
It can be done by manual shake by lowering the temperature of the milk between 2 to 5 ° C, or using a skimmer.
This operation consists of conferring to the milk the density appropriate to the yogurt processing process. The standardized is achieved by adding to fresh milk, whole milk powder in the proportion of 30 to 50 grams per liter of milk. In this operation also adds sugar in the proportion of 90 grams per liter and fruit pulp in the proportion of 50 grams per liter.
Using a stainless steel or aluminum pot, the milk is heated to a temperature of 85 ° C and for 10 minutes. It is recommended that milk be kept at this temperature constantly, because higher temperatures denature proteins and lower the quality of the finished product and lower temperatures do not eliminate the bacterial load and the product is deteriorated by contamination.
The milk is cooled to room temperature up to 40 to 45 ° C, which is the temperature at which the yogurt culture enzymes develop optimally.
It consists of incorporating into the milk the activated culture of yogurt in the
proportion of 20 grams per liter of milk.
In this operation the fruit pulp is also added in the proportion of 50 grams per liter of milk, and optionally flavorings and colorings can be added to enhance the color and flavor of the added fruit pulp. Then beat it gently until a homogeneous mixture is obtained.
Inoculation of the strain
This operation consists in keeping the previous mixture at an average temperature of 40 to 45 ° C. For 3 to 4 hours. After this time the coagulation of the product is observed acquiring the consistency of flan,
The product must be cooled to a temperature of 1 to 4 ° C and ready for consumption.
Packaged yogurt should be stored at refrigeration temperature of 1 to 4 ° C. Under these conditions can last up to two weeks without significant alterations.
The commercialization must be carried out with the packaged product and always maintaining the cooling temperature.
Quality controls are performed with physical and chemical analysis.
The quality of the yogurt depends on the quality of the raw material, the techniques of elaboration employed and, above all, the personal hygiene and the utensils used.
Milk is a very perishable food and is easily contaminated, so it is necessary that the milking and handling of dairy products is very careful and hygienic. Milk must come from healthy cows and free from contagious infectious diseases.